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#Smoking related lung diseases


  SMOKING RELATED LUNG DISEASES: In addition to the cancers of lung that are caused by smoking, there are numerous other benign smoking related lung diseases. These can be divided into restrictive and obstructive lung diseases.  Restrictive or interstitial lung diseases: These include Respiratory bronchiolitis, Respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) and [...]

#Smoking related lung diseases2020-02-06T06:14:53+00:00

Coronavirus, Be Aware And Spread Awareness


Coronavirus, Be Aware And Spread Awareness Introduction With the advancements and changes in life styles, technologies, eating habits and lot more, the diseases attacking the mankind have also changed their trends. There was a time when bacterial infections were more prevailing and were the main cause of the mortalities but then came the magical antibiotics [...]

Coronavirus, Be Aware And Spread Awareness2020-01-28T11:20:20+00:00

Painless enlargement of thyroid


  Painless enlargement of thyroid Non-neoplastic Neoplastic Hashimoto’s thyroiditis  Papillary carcinoma Iodine deficiency goiter Follicular carcinoma Drugs Medullary carcinoma Dyshormogenic goiter Anaplastic carcinoma Reidel’s thyroiditis Poorly differentiated carcinoma Diffuse toxic nodular goiter Follicular adenoma Painless thyroiditis     Painful enlargements of thyroid: 1.Acute infectious thyroiditis 2.Granulomatous thyroiditis Thyroid lesions in children Developmental: Lingual thyroid [...]

Painless enlargement of thyroid2020-01-28T11:17:58+00:00

Salivary gland; Non-neoplastic lesions


Salivary gland; Non-neoplastic lesions There are three major salivary glands; parotid, submandibular and sublingual. There are innumerable minor salivary glands. These glands can be involved by neoplastic as well as non-neoplastic lesions including inflammation, radiation induced and related to obstruction Sialolithiasis: Cause:  obstruction of orifices of salivary gland, may be due to impacted food debris [...]

Salivary gland; Non-neoplastic lesions2020-01-03T20:07:41+00:00

Benign tumors of salivary glands:


      Benign tumors of salivary glands: The benign tumors of salivary gland most often appear in fifth to seventh decades and come into attention due to their rapid growth. Pleomorphic Adenoma: These are benign tumors of salivary gland tha consist of mixture of ductal (epithelial) and myoepithelial cells showing both epithelial and mesenchymal [...]

Benign tumors of salivary glands:2019-12-25T19:32:29+00:00

Medullary carcinoma of thyroid:


Medullary carcinoma of thyroid: It is a rare tumor of thyroid constituting of less than 10% of thyroid tumors. These are neuroendocrine tumors of thyroid derived from parafollicular cells of thyroid which are also called as C cells. Like the normal C cells the medullary carcinomas also secrete Calcitonin. Measurement of levels of calcitonin helps [...]

Medullary carcinoma of thyroid:2019-12-19T15:25:30+00:00

Thyroid carcinoma other than papillary carcinoma


Thyroid carcinoma other than papillary carcinoma   Papillary carcinoma being the most common one constituting 85% of all thyroid cancers is usually the one discussed in detail. But the other tumors occurring in thyroid gland carry an equal importance and thus discussed here. Follicular carcinoma: It is the second common carcinoma of thyroid constituting about [...]

Thyroid carcinoma other than papillary carcinoma2019-12-14T08:58:14+00:00

Screen Dependency Syndrome /gadgets can ruin our lives


Screen Dependency Syndrome gadgets can ruin our lives Introduction: Screens, may it be a television, a smart phone, tablet, pc or a video game, have become a major part of our daily routine, not only limited to the adults but at the level of infancy as well. Availability of increasing variety of apps and business [...]

Screen Dependency Syndrome /gadgets can ruin our lives2020-01-16T19:55:34+00:00

Neoplastic lesions of thyroid


Neoplastic lesions of thyroid   There are some clinical criterias that provide clues to nature of a thyroid nodule. Solitary nodules: They are more likely to be neoplastic than the multiple nodules Nodules in young patients tend to be neoplastic as compared to the elderly patients Nodules in males are more likely to be neoplastic [...]

Neoplastic lesions of thyroid2019-12-14T09:09:27+00:00

Non-Neoplastic Lesions of Thyroid


         Non-Neoplastic Lesions of Thyroid            Hypothyroidism Primary causes: Congenital causes: Genetic defects in thyroid development ( FOXF1, TSH receptor mutations) Thyroid hormone resistance syndrome (THRB mutations) Congenital biosynthetic defect (dyshormogenetic goiter) Thyroid agenesis Thyroid hypoplasia Iatrogenic: Drugs (lithium, iodides, aminosalicylic acid) Postablative Radioiodine therapy External radiation Surgery Autoimmune: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Others: Iodine deficiency Secondary [...]

Non-Neoplastic Lesions of Thyroid2019-11-18T10:20:17+00:00